1970 - Pedagogy of the Oppressed – English Edition Released

“Pedagogy of the Oppressed” is a work by Brazilian educator, and Marxist Paulo Freire, released in 1970. Within it, Freire critiques what he deems the “banking” model of education, where students passively receive information from educators. In its place, he proposes a problem-posing model, which suggests students and teachers should engage in co-creating knowledge. This model, influenced heavily by Freire’s apparent Marxist bias, underscores the idea of dialogue and what Freire terms “critical consciousness”, advocating for students to challenge established societal norms.

Freire’s Marxist leanings are unambiguously evident in his portrayal of power dynamics and class warfare in the educational system. Drawing heavily from Marxist rhetoric, he perceives education as a realm in which the so-called “oppressors” exercise control by ensuring the “oppressed” remain passive. His solution, driven by this biased perspective, is a revolutionary style of teaching which, he claims, would empower the oppressed. However, this approach, rooted in Marxist ideologies, is divisive and intended to undermine the foundational principles of educational institutions.